Employee Replacement Costs

Brandon Fluckiger
Have you ever wondered how much employee turnover costs your organization? Does the thought of trying to figure it out overwhelm you? Read this article to learn how it impacts your organization along with a step-by-step way to calculate the cost and apply the data to make your company stronger.

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What Is Employee Replacement Cost?

Employee Replacement Cost (ERC) is the true price of replacing an experienced employee with a new one. A lot of money is lost when an employee leaves and is replaced by someone new. There are many direct and indirect variables in play that add to these costs, from hiring and training a new employee to the engagement of coworkers.

The Average Cost to Replace an Employee in the U.S.

Employee replacement costs vary widely depending on the position. More entry-level jobs requiring less experience have smaller replacement costs. On the other side of the spectrum, executive roles can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars to replace.

One study conducted by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) tells us that replacement costs can equal six to nine months of the employee’s salary.

Other research by the Center for American Progress shows that replacement costs for hourly employees can be 16% of salaries for non-exempt workers or as high as 213% of salaries for exempt employees.

The numbers can be all over the place, but one thing is clear: ERC is expensive. Let’s break down employee replacement costs and find out just what comes into play.

What You’re Really Paying When an Employee Leaves

Here are the main factors that come into play when an experienced employee is replaced.

Hiring Costs

Costs to recruit new employees include payroll for talent acquisition staff, job advertising, background checks, assessments, and the time it takes for employees to screen, interview, hire, and onboard new workers.

Onboarding and Orientation Costs

When a new employee is hired, time must be spent by other employees setting up paperwork, getting the new hire familiar with their duties and team members, and orchestrating meetings between the new hire and company leaders.

Reduced Productivity

New employees are far less productive than experienced staff. In fact, the more time an employee works for an organization, the more productive they become and the more money they return. New employees are paid less, but still, take lots of time (sometimes years) to get their grasp on the job role and start making money for the company.

Work Errors and Inefficiency

New employees make mistakes and are still learning the best ways of doing things. Their customer service skills may not be up to par. They slowly figure out how to be effective and efficient. They could drop the ball with a big client due to unfamiliarity with the project. Errors and inefficiencies can cost lots of money in the long run.

Training and Development Costs

Organizations take time to train new employees. Training programs, trainers’ payroll, and time spent away from regular duties all add to the costs of training and developing employees.

Coworker Engagement and Culture Deterioration

When employees see their coworkers getting replaced, they can disengage and become less productive. High turnover causes employees’ confidence in the organization to dwindle, resulting in deteriorating company culture and workers not performing as well. Additionally, coworkers must pick up the slack while the position is unfilled or new hire is training, adding to low morale and burnout.

How to Calculate Replacement Cost

Pick one specific job position at your company and make the following calculations to find out how much an employee replacement for that role will cost.

Step 1: Calculate Vacant Position Coverage Cost

The vacant position coverage cost tells you how much money you’re losing with the position remaining empty. When an employee leaves the company, their work (which provides monetary value) either goes undone or is picked up by their coworkers, who have to put off their own regular duties.

You can calculate vacant position coverage cost simply by finding out how much the position is paid every day and multiplying the daily rate by the number of days the job remains vacant. To find the role’s daily compensation rate, divide their yearly total compensation (salary + benefits) by the number of working days that year. (The number of working days in a year varies from year to year.)


You want to calculate the vacant position coverage cost for a marketing specialist role at your company. The average total compensation for the position is $50,000 per year. To find the job’s daily compensation, you divide $50,000 by 261 (there were 261 working days in 2021) to get $191.57. You then multiply the daily comp by the days you expect the job to be vacant, which is 30 days.

New job role total compensation (yearly) $50,000.00
New job role total compensation (daily) $191.57
Days job is vacant 30
Vacant position coverage cost $5,747.13

The vacant position coverage cost is $5,747.13. This is the amount your company is losing by leaving the position vacant for 30 days.

Step 2: Calculate Hiring Costs

Add the individual role’s hiring costs to your calculation. These costs (including recruiters’ payroll, advertising, interviewing, etc.) are usually paid in lump sums to cover multiple open positions needing new hires, which means you’ll probably need to break them down to the individual position using division.

For instance, find out how many hours a recruiter and hiring manager need to dedicate to hiring someone new, and multiply those hours by their total daily compensation rate. Don’t forget to calculate and break down the costs of job advertising, background checks, and candidate assessments for the individual role as well.


To hire a new marketing specialist, you know that a recruiter spends several hours writing a job posting, communicating with applicants, scheduling interviews, and assisting in interviews. You also know that a hiring manager spends some time interviewing and vetting job candidates. In addition, job postings cost money to advertise online through your company’s applicant tracking system.

You convert the recruiter’s and hiring manager’s total compensation to hourly rates by dividing yearly compensation by 2,088 (there were 2,088 working hours in 2021) and multiply them by the amount of hours you expect each of them to spend on hiring a new marketing specialist.

Your applicant tracking system charges the company $30 per day for each individual live job posting. You believe the marketing specialist job posting only needs to be live for 20 days, so you multiply that by the $30 charge.

Recruiter total compensation (yearly) $60,000.00
Recruiter total compensation (hourly) $28.74
Recruiter hours spent 20
Total recruiter costs $574.71
Hiring manager total compensation (yearly) $90,000.00
Hiring manager total compensation (hourly) $43.10
Hiring manager hours spent 10
Total hiring manager costs $431.03
Job advertising cost per day posted $30.00
Days job posted 20
Total job advertising cost $600.00
Total hiring cost $1,605.75

You add the recruiter cost, hiring manager cost, and the job advertisement cost for a total hiring cost of $1,605.75.

Step 3: Calculate Onboarding and Orientation Costs

As in Step 2, add all the onboarding and orientation costs for the open position. These costs include training and getting the new hire up to speed. How many hours are used by managers, trainers and mentors to train new employees on their responsibilities? What do each of these employees get paid per hour? Account for all the hours that are spent by other employees training a single new hire and multiply those hours by each worker’s hourly rate of pay.

Does your company pay for any training programs for new employees? Most of these programs are paid by the company on a monthly or yearly basis. Either way, you can divide the monthly/yearly cost by the average number of hires you get in a month/year to find out how expensive the training program is for an individual employee.

Other costs are unique to your organization. Check for costs like welcome gifts, equipment for accommodations, and others.


After a new marketing specialist is hired, onboarding and training takes place. The new employe will have a peer trainer (a coworker to show them the ropes, answer questions, and introduce them to the team), a corporate trainer (a member of HR to share HR policies and other company procedures), and an HR administrator (to collect and file payroll, I-9, and other new hire paperwork). Lastly, the new hire will participate in the company’s online training platform to get familiarized with their department’s software and processes.

For each team member who spends time onboarding the new employee, break down their yearly total compensation again into hourly rates and add the costs of onboarding the employee, similar to steps 1 and 2.

The company’s online training program is paid by the year, and most departments require their new hires to spend the same amount of hours using it. You know the company hires about 21 employees each year on average, so you divide the yearly program cost by 21 to find how much the program costs per new hire.

Peer trainer total compensation (yearly) $55,000.00
Peer trainer total compensation (hourly) $26.34
Peer trainer hours spent 15
Total peer trainer costs $395.11
Corporate trainer total compensation (yearly) $60,000.00
Corporate trainer total compensation (hourly) $28.74
Corporate trainer hours spent 10
Total corporate trainer costs $287.36
HR administrator total compensation (yearly) $50,000.00
HR administrator total compensation (hourly) $23.95
HR administrator hours spent 1
Total HR administrator cost $23.95
Training program yearly cost $600.00
Average number of hires per year 21
Training program cost per employee $28.57
Total onboarding costs $734.99

You add up the costs of the peer trainer, corporate trainer, HR administrator, and training program for the new hire for a total onboarding cost of $734.99.

Step 4: Calculate Productivity Ramp-Up Cost

New employees won’t produce as much as the departed, experienced employee. As the new employee is “ramping up” and figuring things out, there is a temporary loss of productivity and therefore a cost to the company.

Ramp-up costs can be calculated by estimating how a new hire’s productivity improves over time. In days 1-10, they may be 10% productive; days 10-20, they may be 40% productive, and so on. Create a step ladder up to 100% productivity (which could be by day 30, 90, or 120, depending on the job). The manager of the position may know this best. Match these productivity percentages with their daily total compensation rate to find out how much money you’re losing at each level until they’re 100% productive.


You meet with your people analytics specialist and learn how productive new hires in the marketing department areas they ramp up. On day one, they’re 0% productive, by day 20 they’re 40% productive, and so on until they’re 100% productive after day 60. Multiplying the productivity rates by the role’s daily total compensation, you can estimate how much money they’re producing for the company day after day as they ramp up. When you subtract these production amounts by their daily total compensation, you see how much money the company is losing until the new marketing specialist is 100% productive.

Working days % Productivity Production Ramp-up cost
1 0.00% $0.00 $191.57
2-10 10.00% $19.16 $172.41
10-20 20.00% $38.31 $153.26
20-30 40.00% $76.63 $114.94
30-40 60.00% $114.94 $76.63
40-60 80.00% $153.26 $38.31
Total ramp up cost (60 days) $747.13

You run the numbers and see that the company loses a total of $747.13 in productivity ramp-up costs.

Step 5: Add Everything Up

Adding these numbers gives you a general idea of how much it costs to replace that particular position. To find an annual cost, you can multiply this figure by the number of employees in that position lost in any given year.

This formula accounts for all the costs of employee replacement except co-worker engagement and culture deterioration. This more qualitative variable may be harder to measure; however, it is still crucial to acknowledge when replacing employees. The monetary costs are easier to calculate and prioritize, but you shouldn’t forget the more subtle, long-term consequences of turnover that can harm company culture and employee engagement.


You’ve calculated as many costs as you could think of related to replacing a marketing specialist. You add together the vacant position coverage cost, hiring costs, onboarding costs, and ramp-up costs for a grand total of $8,834.99.

Vacant position coverage cost $5,747.13
Hiring costs $1,605.75
Onboarding costs $734.99
Ramp-up cost $747.13
Total employee replacement cost $8,834.99

Beyond this, you recognize that there are likely to be more hidden costs in the form of lost productivity and morale from employees in the small marketing department each time a team member leaves. Though this number would be much more complicated to calculate, you can easily assume it could add thousands of more dollars to the marketing specialist ERC.

6. Use the Data

Once you’ve finished these calculations for the different roles in your organization, you have a mass of information. How do you use it?

  • Conduct a cost analysis. Analyze the costs of each of your hiring processes. What are the most expensive parts of hiring a new employee and why? Do any costs surprise you?
  • Identify redundancies. Sometimes there are steps in hiring processes that aren’t worth the money you’re paying for them; they may be useless or redundant. Compare each cost with its actual returns and determine which practices are worth keeping and which may be worth throwing out.
  • Recommend changes. After conducting a thorough cost analysis and assessment, put together some recommendations for changes to your company’s hiring process. Find ways to reduce costs without hurting the new hire experience. Bring these recommendations to your supervisor or other business leaders.
  • Consider a retention program. Realizing all of the costs that go into replacing employees may help you and other business leaders realize how important employee retention is. Use these numbers to justify a retention program—even one that seems expensive at first. Retention programs are almost always less expensive than replacing employees.


You’re surprised to find that replacing a marketing specialist—one of the company’s lower-paying jobs—can cost around $9,000, around 18% of the position’s yearly total compensation. No doubt more critical jobs would be more expensive to replace.

Due to all this data collection and analysis, you’re confident you can make turnover less costly. You share this information with your business leaders and are tasked with assessing the marketing department’s hiring process and implementing changes to increase efficiency and save money.

From the data, it’s clear that the vacant position coverage cost is by far the most expensive, so you work with the marketing department hiring manager and recruiter to find ways to reduce the time it takes to replace new employees. In time, new procedures are set in place to post jobs more quickly, filter applicants more efficiently, and get new team members through your doors in a much more timely manner.

Tips for Keeping More Employees from Leaving

By now you better understand how expensive employee turnover can be for a business. Here are some tips to keep your employees from leaving the company.

  • Provide value. Provide an employee value proposition adapted to your unique group of workers. Some people strongly value internal growth opportunities; others, good health insurance; others, a healthy work/life balance. Go out of your way to learn and give your employees what they want, and they’ll stick around as long as you do so better than other companies.
  • Compensate competitively. Compensation is just one part of a company’s employee value proposition, but it is an important part. Pay attention to what other companies offer in terms of salary and benefits, and make sure you know where you stand.
  • Compensate strategically. Perhaps more important than compensating competitively is to compensate strategically. If you don’t pay as much as other companies, provide more value elsewhere so employees still have a reason to stay.
  • Actively listen. In order to know the most influential reasons your employees choose to stay with your company, you need to ask them. Don’t wait until they have an offer from another company. Have regular conversations with employees about how they’re feeling about working in the organization and if there’s anything you can do to keep them longer. People analytics and employee surveys can help with this.

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Questions You’ve Asked Us About Employee Replacement Costs

What should employee replacement cost be used for?
Above all, employee replacement cost calculations should be used to teach and communicate how expensive employee turnover is. These costs can justify better retention practices and get support from leadership in implementing them. Running these sorts of cost analyses also helps HR professionals identify where costs can be reduced in the hiring process and with workforce planning when staffing budgets need to be considered.
Are employee replacement costs higher in certain industries?
Yes. Some industries have more costly training processes. Other industries have more higher-paying jobs. Others have a much harder time finding replacements quickly. Since there are so many factors that come into play with employee replacement costs, industries or businesses that are worse off in certain areas will experience higher employee replacement costs.
Brandon Fluckiger

Brandon is currently a People & Capabilities Advisor at Thiess where he helps implement HR strategies in Salt Lake City and Colorado. He recently graduated with his MHR and MBA at Utah State University, where he also received his bachelor’s degree in Communication Studies with minors in HR, business management, and technical sales management. He has filled professional roles as an HR business partner, an HR generalist, and a senior recruiter; and has exceptional experience in people analytics, compensation, and talent development. Brandon is a strong advocate for HR strategy and helping business leaders understand the true power of maximizing employee potential.

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